Palmitoyl Oligopeptide-3 (Ceramide-2) Review
Clinically proven to regenerate the skin's upper layers by stimulating
collagen production, thickening the epidermis. Palmitoyl
Oligopeptide-3 stimulates cell communication and then repairs age-related
A two month study was performed using 24
female volunteers aged from 42 to 66 years. They applied Palmitoyl
Oligopeptide-3 daily. An evaluation was conducted using image
analysis (profilometry). Since pigments tend to accentuate the appearance
of wrinkles, photographs were taken with and without foundation, before
and after 56 days of treatment.
- Volume of the main wrinkle -- Reduced
- Depth of the main wrinkle -- Reduced
Surface occupied by deep wrinkles -- Reduced 40.3%
Surface occupied by medium wrinkles -- Reduced 24.5%
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 Review
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 is used in formulas as
a wrinkle preventative as well as a wrinkle reducer as an alternative to
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 is a mimic of the
N-terminal end of SNAP-25, one of three proteins (known as the SNARE
complex) that are essential for neurotransmitter release at the synapsis,
which is the chemical signal for a muscle to contract.
As a wrinkle reducer, studies have shown
that Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 at a 10% concentration was able to significantly
decrease the depth of wrinkles after 30 days of treatment. The mechanism
by which Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 is able to accomplish this is related to the
ways in which Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 is able to assist wrinkle prevention.
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 performs this activity
in two distinct ways:
The first way Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 acts as
a wrinkle preventative is by competing with SNAP-25 for a position in the
SNARE complex. This destabilizes the SNARE complex, preventing the vesicle
from releasing neurotransmitters efficiently, and therefore attenuating
muscle contraction. This causes a reduction in facial muscle contraction,
which is believed to help prevent the long-term formation of lines and
The second way that Acetyl Hexapeptide-3
acts as a wrinkle preventative is by reducing the release of
catecholamines (the overproduction of which is known to induce the
formation of wrinkles and fine lines in the skin), specifically adrenaline
Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 is non-toxic and well
tolerated by the skin.
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 is a synthetic
peptide that is a fragment of immunoglobulin G that has been combined with
palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic and thus enhance its affinity
towards human skin. Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 was discovered through
research to learn how to suppress the body's production of interleukins,
particularly IL6, since these are the chemical messengers that trigger the
body's acute inflammatory response.
Inflammation is a function of immunity and
is a protective response to injury or destruction of tissue. This is the
body's way of walling off the injurious agent and the injured tissue.
Under normal circumstances, very little IL6 is secreted and its secretion
is strictly controlled. However, as we age this regulation system develops
defects, and significant levels of IL6 appear in the plasma even when
there is no inflammatory stimulus. This results in high levels of
inflammatory proteins in the tissues and a loss of healing potential. This
process has been linked with breast cancer, osteoporosis, anemia,
autoimmunity and slower tissue regeneration.
The hormone DHEA is directly responsible
for maintaining the regulation of the production of IL6. This has even
been demonstrated in the skin: when DHEA is present in sufficient amounts
it is converted into a steroid hormone, androstenediol, which is directly
responsible for maintain IL6 production and for maintaining local
homeostasis of cytokine and interleukin production. As we age, DHEA is
reduced and this directly leads to cytokine deregulation and the
over-production of some interleukins and the under-production of others.
As mentioned above, IL6 production is increased with negative
consequences. Since UV radiation can increase IL6 production by five
times, this process can significantly impact the skin.
The researchers' goal thus became to find a
peptide that would mimic the effects of DHEA without DHEA's potential for
being converted into estrogen, since estrogen is a hormone that is not
licensed for cosmetic purposes. Specifically they wanted to find a peptide
that would target IL6 and inhibit its production. The results:
1.) At concentrations from 10 ppm,
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 induces a marked reduction in the secretion of
the cytokine IL6. This reduction is progressive and depends on the
concentration of the peptide: baseline secretion may be inhibited by up to
2.) Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 reduced levels
of IL6 after cells were exposed to UV radiation by up to 86% even though
IL6 had been increased by about 20 fold by the UV.
These results show that Palmitoyl
Tetrapeptide-3 is able to affect baseline levels of IL6 as well as
modulate the effects of UV-stimulated over-production of IL6. IL6 is
marketed by Sederma as a molecule that can restore cytokine equilibrium,
which characterizes youthful skin. Ultra Aesthetics has chosen to use
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3as a synergistic support ingredient to create a
more optimum environment for other active ingredients to help restore
youthful skin appearance.
Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (Biopeptide-CL)
Like Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, Biopeptide-CL
is a synthetic protein that is a fragment of collagen combined with
palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic, to improve its stability and to
enhance its affinity towards human skin. As with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3,
one could look at Biopeptide-CL as a man-made precursor to collagen.
Biopeptide-CL was developed through
research to identify a substance that would behave similarly to retinoic
acid but without its drawbacks, especially in regards to synthesizing
The reported results are as follows:
- Increased collagen production by the fibroblasts by as much as 350%.
- Increased hyaluronic acid production by the fibroblasts by as much as
The following statistics were gathered using image analysis of volunteers
who used crèmes containing a 3% concentration of Biopeptide-CL for 28
- Surface roughness -- Reduced 17%
- Mean depth of wrinkles -- Reduced 23%
- Depth of main wrinkle -- Reduced 39%
- Skin thickness -- Increased 4%
The increase in skin thickness was
considered especially notable and contrasts with the 6% reduction of the
skin thickness that occurs after 10 years of aging. The study concludes to
state that Biopeptide-CL is a potent active cosmetic ingredient without
the adverse effects (including irritation, dehydration or long-term
toxicity and instability) characteristic of retinoids.
Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract
Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract is obtained
from the herb Siegesbeckia orientalis L. This herb has been used for
centuries externally to soothe inflammation and stimulate wound healing,
which it does through tissue regeneration by way of collagen matrix
A now expired patent by Pierre Fabre
Medicaments describes its ability to stimulate wound healing, to promote
more regular tissue renewal, to increase the normal appearance of scars
and to fully restore elasticity to damaged skin with collagen fibers
arranged in regular fashion.
Extracts of Siegesbeckia orientalis have
shown anti-inflammatory properties, inhibition of collagenase and
protection from UV induced erythema.
This initial research led to an
investigation of Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract ability to restructure
stretch marks. Stretch marks are caused by abnormal stretching of the
dermis (pregnancy, change in weight), from a linear scar or from some
endocrine disorders. In each case the stretch mark affects the elastin
fibers in the middle dermis, which are diminished or disappear. Any
effective treatment for stretch marks thus must restore normal quantities
of collagen and elastin fibers.
The effects shown in a four-week clinical
study where a crème containing 1.5% of Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract
was applied by volunteers twice daily are listed below.
- Length of Streaks -- Reduced 52.15%
- Surface Smoothness -- Increased 13.7%
- Indented Surfaces -- Reduced 55.4%
- Length of Irregularities -- Reduced 52.2%
These results correspond to restructuring
of the tissue. At the end of treatment the surface of the skin was more
regular in appearance and the global profile was more uniform with stretch
marks tending to fade. These results show Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract
to possess exciting characteristics for the treatment of stretch marks. In
addition, Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract is shown to possess excellent
tolerance and non-toxicity.
Emblica is the trade name for a tannin-rich
extract from the herb Phyllanthus emblica. This herb has been used for
thousands of years in India and is a cornerstone within the traditional
healing system of Ayurveda.
As a skincare ingredient Emblica has been
shown to have great multifunctionality. Though its primary applications
within the skincare industry are as a photoprotective agent and a skin
lightener, Emblica offers a host of benefits for the skin.
Studies have shown Emblica to possess
powerful, broad-spectrum antioxidant properties. In addition, Emblica is
extremely stable and is not subject to photodegradation. While vitamins C,
and E, and antioxidants from pine bark and rosemary lose over 50% of their
antioxidant activity in an aqueous solution after only three months,
Emblica remains stable for over a year. Research has shown Emblica to
increase skin hydration and skin lipids, to reduce collagenase activity,
to reduce UV-induced erythema, to reduce inflammation and to help preserve
skin tone and integrity.
One of Emblica's most exciting applications
is as a skin lightener. While most skin lighteners such as Hydroquinone,
Arbutin, and Kojic Acid have toxicity issues or can cause negative
reactions on the skin, Emblica is well tolerated with no side effects.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate has been the best-tolerated skin lightener up
to this point, however Emblica is more stable and does not generate
Skin lightening agents are used to either
lighten or depigment the skin. Skin lighteners are generally used in
Europe and the United States to treat age spots and freckles whereas the
Asian market uses them to change or modify skin color. Excessive
pigmentation of the skin can be caused by UV-radiation, hormonal
imbalance, inflammation, drugs or aging. A number of studies have
demonstrated Emblica's ability to lighten and even-tone normal,
hyper-pigmented and UV-induced pigmented skin color. In two studies
Emblica showed comparable results to an equal concentration of
Hydroquinone for skin lightening with Hispanic and Asian skin over a
nine-week period. Another study showed Emblica to provide significant
lightening of freckle spots after 8 weeks.
Though there has not been a specific study
of Emblica's potential to normalize the uneven skin tone caused by stretch
marks, its ability to lighten both normal and hyper-pigmented skin is
perhaps an indication that Emblica could also play a role in helping to
normalize the appearance of stretch-marked skin.
As mentioned above, Emblica also possesses
exciting photoprotective properties. Of particular importance is Emblica's
ability to reduce collagenase activity (a protein that attacks the
dermis), which is increased by UV light. Collagenase is one of the key
factors in aging of the skin.
Another extremely important feature of
Emblica is that it can chelate iron and copper. While iron and copper are
necessary for many biological activities, their toxicity threatens
cellular integrity. Emblica seems a particularly good ingredient to add to
sun protection products, as it is clear that UV radiation causes the
release of iron in skin firbroblasts and that sun-damaged skin contains
significantly higher levels of iron.
While antioxidants are the chief defense
against free radical damage, vitamins C and E as well as glutathione all
function as pro-oxidants when in the presence of iron and copper, causing
additional oxidative stress. Emblica may play an increasing role in UV
protective products because it can help reduce oxidative stress by
scavenging free radicals while simultaneously chelating iron and copper,
stopping their harmful effects.
Emblica is extremely well tolerated with no
adverse side effects.