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Apple Polyphenol (Procyanidin B2 and C1)

Phytochemical concentrate found in the skin of unripe apples that acts as potent antioxidant. It protects cells against free radicals, reactive atoms that contribute to tissue damage in the body. These chemical compounds are being studied extensively in labs around the world for their health effects in major diseases including treatment of hair growth. Studies showed that after sequential use, an increase of almost 80% of hair diameter and an increase of number of total hairs was shown, with no side effects.

In 2000, Japanese researchers presented their findings to the international community on the hair growing effects of apple polyphenols- specifically one known as procyanidin B-2. They identified two successful compounds- one from chardonnay grapes, and one extracted from unripe apples. Here is what the cell culture tests revealed:

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The procyanidin B-2 fraction clearly outperformed the grape extract, and nearly doubled the hair growth activity of minoxidil. "Procyanidin B-2 purified from apples," stated the research team, "shows the highest activity of more than 300% relative to controls."

In the same year, in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, nineteen men with male pattern baldness were studied with a daily topical application of a 1% procyanidin B-2 solution, extracted from apples. Ten other balding men served as controls, receiving a placebo solution. After 6 months, the study concluded:

  • The increase in the number of total hairs and terminal hairs in the procyanidin B-2 group subjects was significantly greater than controls
  • 78.9% of subjects showed an increased mean value of hair diameter
  • "Procyanidin B-2 therapy shows promise as a cure for male pattern baldness."

Following the revelations, an attempt was made to further understand the mechanism by which the remarkable hair growth effects occurred. The results were published in the prestigious British Journal of Dermatology: Procyanidin B-2, extracted from apples, promotes hair growth: a laboratory study, Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):41-51

In this study, the researchers concluded that procyanidin B-2 acts to diminish protein kinase C isozymes, which play an important role in the hair growth cycle. Procyanidin B-2 seems to promote hair growth by down regulating PKC in both the anagen (active growth phase) and telogen (resting phase) of the hair follicle. When the anagen phase is prolonged, and the telogen phase is shortened, increased hair growth results.

Two more clinical trials and a total of seven published studies have now confirmed the surprising hair growth-promoting effects of apple procyanidins. Here is a summary of those findings:

  • Total Number of Hairs: Significantly Increased
  • Total Number of Terminal Hairs: Significantly Greater
  • Increase in Hair Diameter: 78.9% Positive
  • Ratio of Thicker (terminal) Hairs: Significantly Higher
  • Compared to Minoxidil: Up to 200% Better
  • Hair Follicle Activation: Intensive

In the most exciting development yet, Japanese researchers released a new study late in 2005. Once again, procyanidin therapy was proven successful in re-growing hair in subjects with male pattern baldness. The new study, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, confirmed the findings of earlier studies, showing clear improvement in the number of hairs and the density of hairs in the treated area.

Building on the success of earlier trials, the study was extended to 12 months in the procyanidin group, and proved that longer term procyanidin therapy was even more successful than prior 4 and 6 month trials.


Copper Peptides

Copper Peptides have two main properties: (1) potent tissue protective anti-inflammatory agents that limit oxidative damage after tissue injury, and (2) tissue remodeling activation agents, that is, the processes for removal of damaged protein and scar tissue and their replacement by normal tissue. Studies at numerous universities and research institutes have found copper-peptides to improve hair transplant success, increase hair follicle size, stimulate hair growth and reduce hair loss.

Research scientists at the University of San Francisco Wound Center may have stumbled onto the answer to hair loss: something that has frustrated mankind for centuries. Their discovery was made while applying a synthetically formulated compound, Copper Peptide, to severe wound areas on several patients. During this process something unusual happened. Not only did the wounds heal about 30 percent faster, but a significant stimulation of the follicular cells occurred. As a side effect, these tripeptide complexes actually grew hair around the wound area.

The discovery was so startling that they then applied the same Copper Peptide complex to a female patient who had suffered roughly 90 percent alopecia (hair loss) for years. After about six months of use, she had recovered almost 100 percent of her hair. Dr. Loren Pickart, the leading authority in Copper Peptide technology, describes it as being like a protein injection to the scalp.

Tests were then conducted with chemotherapy patients and recent hair transplant recipients, all with great success in stimulating newer and stronger hair follicles. The implications of such a startling discovery have gotten the attention of several large companies.


Spin Traps

Several compounds have recently gained recognition for ameliorating cellular dysfunction. One type of dysfunction which has been well studied is alopecia for which anti-alopecia agents such as minoxidil and cyoctol have gained attention. However, most of these anti-alopecia agents are only minimally effective in some cases and/or can cause adverse dermatological or systemic reactions.

A method for ameliorating a cellular dysfunction of a tissue, which is also useful as the treatment of hair loss and stimulation of hair growth comprises of administering a nitroso or nitrone spin trap to the affected tissue. These agents inhibit the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide to produce peroxinitrite. Spin traps can provide unique protection against free radicals.

Scientists discovered that nitrone and nitroso spin traps have properties in the body for ameliorating cellular dysfunction in tissue attributed, in part, to high energy oxygen and hydroxyl free radicals, and enhancing recuperation of the tissue. N-t-butyl-.alpha.-phenylnitrone (PBN) can be administered, for example, as an anti-alopecia agent to stimulate hair growth.

Spin traps can be administered to the skin to be treated, including the scalp. Depending on the type of hair loss or alopecia being treated and the conditions thereof, the stimulation of hair growth can usually be obtained by topical application, preferably repeated daily application for a period of 3-6 months. The utility of topically applied spin traps also includes an increased rate of growth, increased hair diameter, follicular neogenesis, and the like; inhibiting hair loss or alopecia from progressing, for example, in male pattern baldness, or during the course of treatment with other therapeutic agents known to induce hair loss, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy in cancer treatment.

Spin traps can be used alone or in combination with other compounds which are available to enhance the function of hair growth stimulation.


Ketokonazole

If we first examine the role of androgens, specifically dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we find that this hormone has been thought to slowly "choke" the growth of the hair follicle by inhibiting the function of an enzyme in the hair follicle called adenylate cyclase. Suffice it to say that when DHT concentrations remain high in the scalp, we see terminal (thick, coarse) scalp hair become reduced to vellus hair (fine, thin peach fuzz).

Ketokonazole is an antifungal medication and is significant for those combating hair loss for a couple of reasons. First, ketoconazole's action as an antifungal agent reduces scalp irritation caused by fungal colonization or infection. The reduction of the inflammatory process that occurs in male pattern alopecia is crucial. Second, ketoconazole has been shown in many studies to physiologically have an anti-androgenic (anti-DHT) effect.

On March 04, 2001, at the American Academy of Dermatology Meeting in Washington DC, scientists presented the findings of a study done on 1% ketoconazole shampoo which has good news for hair loss sufferers. It has long been known that 2% prescription ketoconazole has beneficial effects on Androgenic Alopecia (MPB). It however has been unclear whether the same benefits can be obtained by using the non-prescription 1% version.

In the study presented, one hundred male volunteers with mild to moderate dandruff and somewhat oily scalp, were using, in a double-blind fashion, either a 1% ketoconazole shampoo or a 1% zinc pyrithione shampoo, 2-3 times a week for 6 months.

Analysis of the different parameters set up in the study shows that the hair diameter gradually increased with ketoconazole use (+8.46%) over a 6 month period, whereas the diameter showed a trend to decrease with zinc pyrithione use over the same period (-2.28%). The sebum excretion rate was reduced with ketoconazole (-6.54%) while it increased with zinc pyrithione (+8.2%) over the same period of time. The number of hair shed over a 24-hour period was reduced by 16.46% with ketoconazole and 6.02% with zinc pyrithione after 6 months. Finally, the percentage of hairs in anagen phase increased by 6.4% during the study time.

The results are similar to a previous study done on 2% prescription strength Ketokonazole where it was shown that use of 2% ketoconazol yielded a 7% average increase in hair shaft diameter similar to what was achieved by the control group using 2% Minoxidil and a non-medicated shampoo.

This research clearly indicates that using 1% or 2% ketoconazole 2-3 times per week, will have positive effects on hair growth as well as controlling dandruff.


Rooibos

Rooibos or Red Bush Tea - a hardy shrub indigenous to the North Western Cape of South Africa – is an exciting new botanical ingredient with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, well documented in the literature. Clinically Rooibos is often prescribed for nervous tension, allergies, stomach and digestive problems. However, the results from an independent study also showed a significant improvement in hair growth.

Studies were initiated at an independent laboratory (Dermascan, France) to study the effect of the use of Rooibos in a hair lotion on a group of healthy persons who were suffering from the problem of hair loss. A 90 day trial was conducted comparing a hair lotion containing 10% Rooibos with a placebo lotion. 5 ml of the alcoholic solutions were applied daily.

After 90 days results showed a significant increase of the hair growth speed in the lotion containing Rooibos compared with the placebo. An increase in the hair growth speed was observed with 89% of the volunteers with no undesirable reactions (irritation or allergy).

The participants were next asked to fill in a questionnaire. When the results were tallied, 67 percent rated their hair loss as zero or low, 78 percent saw a low to medium improvement, 45 percent saw a low to medium re-growth of hair, and 63 percent considered their hair had become smoother and more shiny. Conclusion: results show that most of the volunteers had a remarkable improvement in both the increase of the speed of hair growth, the decrease in hair loss and an overall improvement in hair condition.


MSM

Sulphur is present in protein-rich foods containing high levels of the amino acids methionine and cysteine. These foods include meat, fish, legumes, nuts, eggs, and vegetables, especially onions. However, sulphur has recently become a popular nutritional supplement and topical treatment, thanks to the discovery of methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM.

The use of MSM as a nutritional supplement and topical application is relatively recent. An American chemist named Robert Herschler, began studying MSM in 1955. However, another man, Dr. Stanley Jacob with Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, is considered by many to be the father of MSM. Dr. Jacob found that simple marine life like algae and plankton convert inorganic sulphur to organic sulphur compounds. These compounds are known as dimethylsulfonium salts. These salts are transformed into dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is released into the atmosphere and is converted by ultraviolet light into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). When DMSO oxidizes, it turns into MSM and is absorbed by plants that become food for animals and humans. MSM is a white, crystalline powder that is odorless and nearly tasteless. When taken as a dietary supplement, MSM proved to have the same health benefits as DMSO without side-effects such as bad breath, itchy skin, nasal congestion, and shortness of breath.

Why does MSM help with the development of longer and stronger hair? Various scientific studies have proven that MSM contributes a definite normalizing effect on body functions. The sulfur normally provided to the body by MSM is required for healthy collagen and keratin which are essential for healthy hair, skin and nails. MSM also has proven antioxidant benefits which can disrupt or alter damaging chain reactions of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

MSM has been widely used as a dietary supplement without any reports of allergy or intolerance related to its use. Supplements of MSM are comfortably assimilated without side effects. There are no known contraindications. The sulfur normally provided to the body by MSM is required for healthy collagen and keratin which are essential for healthy hair, skin and nails. Healthy hair is stronger hair and hair that can achieve its natural genetic growth patterns.

Revita® provides MSM to your scalp and hair, acting on hair loss through multiple compounds and mechanisms, from prevention to later phases.


Caffeine 4%

Active caffeine ingredient helps to regulate the effects of testosterone levels. Male pattern baldness is known to occur in individuals with a sensitivity to testosterone, causing damage to hair follicles that eventually leads to baldness. Studies have shown that after caffeine treatment average hair growth was increased by around 46% and the life cycle of the hair was extended by 37%.

Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.

The independent study at the University of Jena used hair samples from the scalps of young men entering into the first stages of hormone-related hair loss. The study relied on a hair organ culture that used four different types of testing samples. The first was a nutrient-based sample, the second a testosterone only sample, the third was a caffeine only sample and the fourth a mixture of caffeine and testosterone.

According to the research, results showed that the samples containing the caffeine nutrient helped to stave off hair loss and encouraged new hair growth, while the sample that relied on testosterone only led to increased hair loss.

New studies by the Berlin-based "Charité" university clinic prove the absorption of caffeine by the hair follicles after being left on for a mere 2 minutes. They also show that the caffeine remains detectable up to 24 hours.


Carnitine Tartrate

L-Carnitine, a vitamin-like nutrient, occurs naturally in the human body and is essential for turning fat into energy. Active energy metabolism is an essential prerequisite for the growth of strong and healthy hair. In biological systems ATP acts as the universal energy currency. One of the most potent bio-actives that significantly increases cellular ATP contents is carnitine tartrate.

Statistical evaluation demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate, showing that carnitine tartrate is an ideal ingredient for hair care formulations, providing energy for the optimal environment to produce strong and healthy hair.

Throughout the test period ATP content within plucked hair follicles was determined twice daily using a commercially available test kit. Statistical evaluation of baseline adjusted values demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate. These effects were absent in the placebo group, thus underlining the stimulating activity of carnitine tartrate.

The outstanding bio-activity of carnitine tartrate was furthermore demonstrated in a second study, assessing the effects after a single application of a shampoo formulation supplemented with carnitine tartrate. Again, ATP levels in plucked human hair follicles were significantly increased. They conclude that carnitine tartrate is an ideal ingredient for hair care formulations, providing energy for the optimal environment to produce strong and healthy hair.

Revita® contains Carnitine Tartrate in its formulation, in order to fulfill the energy needs of your scalp and hair, acting on hair loss from prevention to later phases


Amino Acids

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, from which hair is created. They are assembled in the correct sequence by stem cells to form keratin, a complex and immensely strong hair protein. Vital amino acids have to be replaced consistently, as damage is accumulated over time. We can replace a combination of these lost amino acids directly into the hair, where they are shown to provide significant tensile benefits to the hair shaft.

Hair is composed primarily of proteins (88%). These proteins are of a hard fibrous type known as keratin. Keratin protein is comprised of what we call "polypeptide chains.” The word, polypeptide, comes from the Greek word "poly" meaning many and "peptos" meaning digested or broken down. In essence, if we break down protein, we have individual amino acids.

Many (poly) amino acids joined together form a "polypeptide chain". Two amino acids are joined together by a "peptide bond", and the correct number of amino acids placed in their correct order will form a specific protein; i.e. keratin, insulin, collagen and so on. The "alpha helix" is the descriptive term given to the polypeptide chain that forms the keratin protein found in human hair. Its structure is a coiled coil. The amino acids link together to form the coil and there are approximately 3.6 amino acids per turn of the helix (coil). Each amino acid is connected together by a "peptide bond". The peptide bond is located between the carbon atom of one amino acid extending to bond with the nitrogen atom of the next amino acid.

L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid synthesized by the body from L-Ornithine. Arginine + Ornithine support protein synthesis because they are involved in the transport and storage of nitrogen.

The usage of taurine corrects what is known as the "rigidification" of the connective sheath that surrounds the Pilosebaceous unit and hair follicles, specifically those affected by pattern hair loss. This is a novel and previously undisclosed angle on hair loss treatment that has yet to be touched upon in any of the medical literature or prior publications.

The amino acid, l-cysteine speeds up hair growth and increases hair shaft diameter resulting in fuller hair. L-cysteine has been reported to facilitate longer hair growth, beyond what is genetically programmed. L-cysteine also provides potent antioxidant protection to the hair follicle. Users of topical n-acetyl-cysteine have reported hair regrowth.

Revita® provides amino acids directly into the hair follicle, where they are shown to provide significant tensile benefits to the hair shaft.


Emu Oil

The emu, Dromaius nova hollandiae, is a flightless bird part of a group called ratites which also includes the ostrich and the kiwi. Modern Australians learned early on from the Aborigines the many valuable qualities in the emu and its oil. The earliest research studies in emu oil come from Australia, and Australia continues to export emu oil to this day.

In the United States today there is a growing network of research labs interested in emus and their incredible oil. Emu oil is rendered from a thick pad of fat on the back of the bird that was apparently provided by nature to protect the animal from the extreme temperatures in its Australian homeland.

Emu oil is an oil that is deep penetrating and super hydrating to hair and skin - an all-natural tissue nutrient. Michael Hollick, MD, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Physiology, and Dermatology at Boston University School of Medicine conducted a study involving emu oil and hair growth. His study found that there was a 20% increase in growth activity of skin that received emu oil, compared to skin that received corn oil. Looking at the hair follicles, Dr. Hollick realized they were much more robust, the skin thickness was remarkably increased, suggesting that emu oil stimulated skin growth and hair growth. Additionally, the study showed that over 80% of hair follicles that had been "asleep" were woken up, and began growing.

Emu oil is anti-inflammatory, which may be in part why it stimulates hair growth. Emu Oil has also been shown to be a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor in target tissues when topically applied, which likely contributes significantly to its hair growth properties. A third important property of emu oil is that it is bacteriostatic.

Emu Oil contains a multitude of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) which help to "feed" the skin. Consumers who suffer from natural forms of baldness have reported hair re-growth. The good news in these reports is that Emu Oil helps stimulate and awaken the sleeping hair follicle.


Biotin

Biotin is a member of the B-vitamin family and a major component in the natural hair manufacturing process -- it is essential to not only grow new hair, but it also plays a major role in the overall health of skin and nails. The beneficial effects of biotin on hair may be linked to its ability to improve the metabolism of scalp oils. The biotin when absorbed by the scalp may promote hair growth. and it is able to penetrate the hair shaft making it expand which actually thickens the hair cuticle.

Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in the Krebs Cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails. Biotin is so important to hair health, that many dermatologists prescribe biotin supplements to their patients as part of their medical treatment for hair loss.

Revita contains Biotin, a major component in the natural hair manufacturing process.


 


These statements have not been evaluated by the food and drug administration. The products mentioned are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Always see your licensed health care professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

 
 

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